Egypt Snefru

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OLD KINGDOM (c. 2700-2200 B.C.)

DYNASTY III (2700-2630 B.C.)
ZOSER (Djoser, Zozer)Step Pyramid at Saqqara, c. 2680 B.C.
DYNASTY IV (2630-2511 B.C.)
Snefru (Snofru or Snefru or Senefru)Pyramids at Dahshur, c. 2625 B.C.
KHUFU (Cheops)Great Pyramid at Gizeh, c. 2600 B.C.
KHAFRE (Cephren)Second Pyramid at Gizeh, c. 2575 B.C.
Menkaure (Mycerinus)Third Pyramid at Gizeh, c. 2540 B.C.
DYNASTY V (2511-2345 B.C.)Rise of Cult of Ra
DYNASTY VI (2345-2181 B.C.)
Pepi I
PEPI II (2275-2185 B.C.)Construction of Last Pyramids

Pharaoh Sneferu (Snofru or Snefru or Senefru) 
(ruled 2613-2589 BCE) 

The principal building projects of Pharaoh Sneferu were located at 

  • Meidum (Meydum) (20 miles south of modern Cairo) 
  • Dahshur Two pyramids (12 miles m south of Cairo).


Prince Rahotep and his wife Nofret c2580 painted limestone



Meidum (Meydum)
c2600 BCE
First Attempt by Snefru
(20 miles south of modern Cairo) 

Not all archaeologists are convinced that this pyramid was built by Seneferu. No pyramid for his predecessor Huni, the last king of the 3rd Dynasty, has ever been found, so they suspect that this may have been built by Huni, or at least started by him, but there is more than one inscription at the pyramid which includes the name of Seneferu, so he seems to have been the builder. 


The near vertical walls of the remains of Sneferu's Pyramid at Meidum.
The Broken Pyramid of Sneferu drawings by Ernst-Weidenbach.
the base of the Meidum Pyramid by Weidenbach



Sneferu's Pyramids at Dahshur
(or archaic Dashhoor)
The Bent Pyramid c2600 BCE
the Bent Pyramid by E.J. Andrews, 1842.
Bent Pyramid is 344 feet (105 M) tall
he angle of the flat sides changes at approximately the midpoint of the sides from 55 to 43 degrees.



Timber holding the second portcullis block of the Bent Pyramid of Dahshur - Copyright 2000 - Andrew Bayuk - All Rights Reserved

Corbelled ceiling of the 2nd portcullis block of the Bent Pyramid of Dahshur - Copyright 2000 - Andrew Bayuk - All Rights Reserved
To see inside visit this link.
Bent Pyramid - Lower chamber looking upward - Copyright (c) 2001 Andrew Bayuk, All Rights Reserved

The Red Pyramid c2600 BCE

Sneferu's third large Pyramid, the Red Pyramid at Dahshur, located 2 1/2 miles (4 km) North of the Bent Pyramid, has flat triangular sides at a 43 degree angle, and is 340 feet (104 meters) tall. 

The Red Pyramid is the third largest Pyramid of Egypt, surpassed only by those built by Sneferu's son and grandson, Cheops and Chephren.

The Red Pyramid was built with a slope of only 43°22'. Its base length is 220 meters, that is 32 meters more than the Bent Pyramid. Its height is the same as the Bent Pyramid.



The third corbelled chamber is the burial chamber, which is 15 meters high and lacks ornamentation, unlike the much later highly decorated tombs in the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens.   All of the chamber's contents have been removed and its floor has been excavated, in an unsuccessful attempt to find other passageways. 

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